Antibodies - are specialized proteins involved in defending the body from antigens (foreign invaders). They can travel through the blood stream and are utilized by the immune system to identify and defend against bacteria, viruses, and other foreign intruders. One way antibodies counteract antigens is by immobilizing them so that they can be destroyed by white blood cells.
Contractile Proteins - are responsible for movement. Examples include actin and myosin. These proteins are involved in muscle contraction and movement.
Enzymes - are proteins that facilitate biochemical reactions. They are often referred to as catalysts because they speed up chemical reactions. Examples include the enzymes lactase and pepsin. Lactase breaks down the sugar lactose found in milk. Pepsin is a digestive enzyme that works in the stomach to break down proteins in food.
Hormonal Proteins - are messenger proteins which help to coordinate certain bodily activities. Examples include insulin, oxytocin, and somatotropin. Insulin regulates glucose metabolism by controlling the blood-sugar concentration. Oxytocin stimulates contractions in females during childbirth. Somatotropin is a growth hormone that stimulates protein production in muscle cells.
Structural Proteins - are fibrous and stringy and provide support. Examples include keratin, collagen, and elastin. Keratins strengthen protective coverings such as hair, quills, feathers, horns, and beaks. Collagens and elastin provide support for connective tissues such as tendons and ligaments.
Storage Proteins - store amino acids. Examples include ovalbumin and casein. Ovalbumin is found in egg whites and casein is a milk-based protein.
- Transport Proteins - are carrier proteins which move molecules from one place to another around the body. Examples include hemoglobin and cytochromes. Hemoglobin transports oxygen through the blood. Cytochromes operate in the electron transport chain as electron carrier proteins.
Protein StructureThere are four levels of protein structure. These levels are distinguished from one another by the degree of complexity in the polypeptide chain (linked amino acids). The four levels of protein structure are primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure. A single protein molecule may contain one or more of these protein structure types. The structure of a protein determines its function. For example, collagen has a super-coiled helical shape. It is long, stringy, strong, and resembles a rope. This structure is great for providing support. Hemoglobin, on the other hand, is a globular protein that is folded and compact. Its spherical shape is useful for maneuvering through blood vessels.
Protein SynthesisProteins are synthesized in the body through a process called translation. Translation occurs in the cytoplasm and involves the translation of genetic codes, assembled during DNA transcription, into proteins. Cell structures called ribosomes help translate these genetic codes into polypeptide chains that undergo several modifications before becoming fully functioning proteins.
For information on other types of biological polymers, see: