Biology: Most Popular Articles
The cell membrane is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cell's cytoplasm, enclosing its contents.
Animal cells are eukaryotic cells that contain various membrane-bound organelles.
Proteins are very important molecules in our cells. Each protein within the body has a specific function.
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Facilitated diffusion is a type of passive transport that allows substances to cross membranes with the assistance of special transport proteins. Page 2.
Explore the structure and function of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells.
The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubules and flattened sacs that serve a variety of functions in the cell.
The Cell Theory is one of the basic principles of biology. It states that all living things are composed of cells.
Ribosomes are cell organelles that consist of RNA and proteins. They are responsible for assembling the proteins of the cell.
Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that are the earliest and most primitive forms of life on earth. Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaeans.
In glycolysis, glucose is split into two molecules of a three-carbon sugar.
This stage-by-stage guide to the phases of meiosis provides details about the events that occur in each of the stages of meiosis.
Cellular respiration is a process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food. Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport are the three main processes of cellular respiration.
Mitochondria are the cell's power producers. They convert energy into forms that are usable by the cell.
A plant cell is a eukaryotic cell, meaning that it possesses a membrane-bound nucleus. Learn about the structures and organelles that can be found in typical plant cells.
The central nervous system (CNS) is responsible for processing information received from all parts of the body. The two main organs of the CNS are the brain and spinal cord.
Definition of the term incomplete dominance.
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes.
An allele is an alternative form of a gene.
Mendel's Law of Segregation states that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
The hippocampus is the part of the brain that is involved in memory forming, organizing, and storing. It is a limbic system structure that is particularly important in forming new memories and connecting emotions and senses, such as smell and sound, to memories.
The amygdala is the brain structure responsible for autonomic responses associated with fear and fear conditioning. Fear conditioning is an associative learning process by which we learn through repeated experiences to fear something.
Protein structure is determined by the sequence of amino acids that form a protein. The four protein structure levels are primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.
The brainstem is the region of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and the pons.
The human body is made up of several organ systems that work together as one unit.
Connective tissue supports and binds other tissues of the body. Examples of connective tissue include adipose, cartilage, bone, tendons, and blood.
A stage-by-stage guide to the phases of mitosis. In interphase, the cell increases in mass in preparation for cell division.
Photosynthesis is a process in which light energy is used to produce sugar and other organic compounds.
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes. Therefore, traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another.
Definition of the word heterozygous.
Chromatin is a mass of genetic material composed of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes.
Nucleic acids are organic molecules that allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next. DNA and RNA are the two types of nucleic acids.
The corpus callosum is a thick band of nerve fibers that divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres.
The following 10 facts about cells will provide you with well known and perhaps little known tidbits of information about cells.
DNA transcription is a process that involves the transcribing of genetic information from DNA to RNA.
The thalamus is a large, dual lobed mass of grey matter buried under the cerebral cortex. It is involved in sensory perception and regulation of motor functions.
In asexual reproduction, one individual produces offspring that are genetically identical to itself. Common forms of asexual reproduction include budding, regeneration, and parthenogenesis.
The nervous system can be divided into two parts, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Centrioles are cylindrical structures that are composed of groupings of microtubules. Centrioles are found in animal cells and play a role in cell division.
The limbic system is comprised of brain structures that are involved in our emotions and feelings of pleasure related to survival. Structures of this system include the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and thalamus.
The frontal lobes are one of the four main lobes or regions of the cerebral cortex.
Living organisms are classified into three Domains and into one of six Kingdoms of life.
The cerebral cortex is the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter. It is the outer portion of the cerebrum.
A chloroplast is a chlorophyll containing organelle found in plant cells and some green algae. Chloroplasts convert light energy into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis.
Phospholipids belong to the lipid family of biological polymers. A phospholipid is composed of two fatty acids, a glycerol unit, a phosphate group and a polar molecule.
Protein synthesis is accomplished through a process called translation. In translation, RNA and ribosomes work together to produce proteins.
Broca's area is one of the main areas of the cerebral cortex responsible for producing language.
The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain. It encompasses about two-thirds of the brain mass and lies over and around most of the structures of the brain.
The cell membrane is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosing its contents.
The medulla oblongata is a portion of the hindbrain that controls autonomic functions such as breathing, digestion and heart rate.
About the size of a pearl, the hypothalamus directs a multitude of important functions in the body. It is the control center for many autonomic functions and also regulates endocrine system hormones.
The Golgi complex, also called the Golgi apparatus, is a membranous structure found in plant and animal cells. It processes, sorts, and generates molecules necessary for proper cell function.
Explore the structure and function of nervous tissue and neurons, also called nerve cells.
The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occurs when the heart beats.
The cardiac cycle is the cycle of events that occurs as the heart contracts.
Due to its intricate structure and function, the anatomy of the brain is complex. This resource provides information on brain anatomy, the central nervous system, and brain function.
Explore the structure and function of cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle tissue.
The cytoplasm is a clear substance that consists of all of the contents outside of the nucleus of a membrane bound cell.
The cerebellum is the area of the hindbrain that controls motor movement coordination, balance, equilibrium and muscle tone.
Red blood cells are blood components that transport oxygen throughout the body. Also called erythrocytes, these cells contain hundreds of millions of oxygen-binding hemoglobin molecules.
A capillary is an extremely small blood vessel located within the tissues of the body.
There have a number of important specialized types of plant cells. Some examples of specialized plant cells include parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells and sclerenchyma cells.
Also called leukocytes, white blood cells play an important role in the immune system by protecting the body from infectious agents.
Gametes are reproductive cells that unite at fertilization to form a new cell called a zygote. Gametes are haploid cells, meaning that they contain only one set of chromosomes.
Take a journey into the cell to find out about the cell structure of both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
The temporal lobes are one of the four main lobes or regions of the cerebral cortex. The temporal lobes play an important role in organizing sensory input, auditory perception and memory.
The Three Domain System is a system for classifying biological organisms. Under this system, organisms are classified into three domains and six kingdoms.
A haploid cell is a cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes.
A diploid cell is a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes.
What is biology? Simply put, it is the study of life.
Lipids are very diverse in both their respective structures and functions. Examples of lipids include fats, phospholipids, steroids and waxes.
If you are taking a biology course, you are going to write biology lab reports. Find information about using a good lab report format to properly write a lab report.
Temperate forests are areas with high levels of precipitation, humidity, and contain a variety of deciduous trees.
The pons serves as a communications and coordination center between the two hemispheres of the brain.
The heart is the organ that helps supply blood and oxygen to all parts of the body. Heart anatomy focuses on the structure and function of this amazing organ.
An introduction to the mechanisms of sexual reproduction in animals.
The cerebral cortex is the outer covering of the cerebrum. It is the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter.
A chromosome mutation causes changes in the structure or number of chromosomes in a cell. These mutations are often caused by errors that occur during the process of cell division or by mutagens.
Definition of the term homologous chromosomes.
What is the relationship between chromosomes and sex? Sex is determined by the presence or absence of certain chromosomes.
The skeletal system is the support system for the body. It gives the body shape, form, and mobility while providing protection for sensitive organs.
Learn about virus replication and how viruses infect cells.
Need help studying for biology? I've got some great biology study tips for you. Just following these simple steps will make studying less stressful.
Learn about the characteristics and parts of a flowering plant.
The occipital lobes are positioned at the back region of the cerebral cortex and are the main centers for visual processing.
Parts of a Flowering Plant Quiz Take Our Quiz About Flowering Plants Sorry, but this quiz requires that
A gene mutation is any change that occurs in the DNA. These changes can be beneficial to, have some effect on, or be seriously detrimental to an organism.
The pineal gland is a pine cone shaped gland of the endocrine system that produces several important hormones including melatonin.
Definition of the word homozygous.
Blood vessels are intricate networks of hollow tubes that transport blood throughout the entire body.
Temperate grasslands are savanna-like areas located in cold climate regions.
Bacterial reproduction most commonly occurs by a kind of cell division called binary fission. Other forms of bacterial reproduction include conjugation, transformation, and transduction.
Here are some great ideas for biology science fair projects including projects related to animals, plants and the human body.
A vein is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood from various regions of the body to the heart. Veins can be categorized into pulmonary, systemic, superficial, and deep veins.
How do normal cells differ from cancer cells? Learn about the properties of normal cells versus cancer cells.
Information and resources pertaining to the reticular formation
The diencephalon, along with the telencephalon comprise the two major divisions of forebrain.
Biological evolution is defined as any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations. This change can occur through a mutation, gene flow between populations, and sexual reproduction.
Carbohydrates are one of the four major classes of organic compounds in living cells. The term carbohydrate is used when referring to a saccharide or sugar and its derivatives.
Should you wash your hands with a hand sanitizer or soap and water?
Sex cells are reproductive cells. Male and female sex cells are dramatically different in size and shape. Female ova are large and round, while male sperm resemble long, motile projectiles.
The pituitary gland is a small endocrine system organ that controls a multitude of important functions in the body.
The nucleus is a cell structure that contains hereditary information, or DNA, and controls cellular growth and reproduction.
Take the Cellular Respiration Quiz and find out how much you know about cellular respiration.
The integumentary system consists of the largest organ in the body, the skin. This extraordinary organ system protects the internal structures of the body from damage, prevents dehydration, stores fat and produces vitamins and hormones.
Microtubules are hollow rods, functioning primarily to help support and shape the cell.
Polymers are large molecules or macromolecules composed of many similar smaller molecules linked together. The individual smaller molecules are called monomers.
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting nutrients and removing gaseous waste from the body. This system is comprised of the heart and the circulatory system.
Spindle fibers are aggregates of microtubules that move chromosomes during cell division.
Cells grow and replicate through an ordered series of events called the cell cycle.
Sex linked traits originate from genes found on sex chromosomes. Hemophilia is an example of a common sex linked disorder that is an X linked recessive trait.
Lymphatic vessels filter and transport fluid away from tissues before returning it to the blood. This helps to maintain normal blood volume and pressure.
For almost one hundred years scientists believed that brain cells don't regenerate, until now.
Proteins are very important molecules in cells. They have many diverse functions and all are typically constructed from one set of 20 amino acids.
The heart is the organ that supplies blood and oxygen to all parts of the body.
Definition of the term centromere. A centromere is a region on a chromosome that joins two sister chromatids.
The presence or absence of certain identifiers on the surface of red blood cells determine human blood type.
The following project ideas using plants provide suggestions for topics that can be explored through experimentation.
Bone marrow is the soft tissue found inside bones that functions mainly to produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
A chromosome is a long, stringy aggregate of genes that carries heredity information and is formed from condensed chromatin.
All cells of the nervous system are comprised of neurons. Neurons are responsible for sending, receiving, and interpreting information from all parts of the body.
The circulatory system involves the circulation of blood which serves to move blood to a site or sites where it can be oxygenated, and where wastes can be disposed.
This study guide introduces you to the basics of mitosis and the mitotic process.
The principles that govern heredity were discovered by a monk named Gregor Mendel in the 1860's. One of these principles is now called Mendel's law of segregation.
An artery is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood away from the heart. Pulmonary and systemic arteries are two main types of arteries.
The ventricles of the heart function to pump blood to the entire body.
Lymphatic system structures collect, filter, and return lymph to blood circulation.
RNA molecules are unique nucleic acids that are essential to protein synthesis. The three primary classes of RNA molecules are messenger RNA, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA.
Information and resources pertaining to Wernicke's area of the brain.
Information and resources pertaining to the pulmonary artery of the heart.
Information and resources pertaining to the parietal lobes
Plant tissue systems are composed of dermal tissue, vascular tissue, and ground tissue systems. These systems provide support, nutrient formation and transportation, growth, and protection for a plant.
The atria of the heart receive blood returning to the heart from other areas of the body.
Try this simple demonstration that shows how to make a working lung model.
Before sitting down to enjoy that holiday turkey meal, I believe it is appropriate to pay tribute to this splendid bird by discovering some interesting turkey facts.
The thymus is a small glandular structure that regulates the immune system through the production of specific immune cells called lymphocytes.
Information and resources pertaining to the human digestive system and nurtrient absorption.
Information and resources pertaining to the coronary arteries of the heart.
Lymph nodes are specialized structures in the body that filter lymph fluid of harmful pathogens, cancer cells, and cellular waste.
In genetic variation, the alleles of organisms within a population change.
Explore the structure and function of animal tissues, including epithelial tissue.
anatomy quiz, heart anatomy
Genes are segments of DNA located on chromosomes. Genes contain the codes for the production of specific proteins.
Definition of the term monohybrid cross.
Amino acids are the basic components of proteins. They are essential to life because the proteins they form are involved in virtually all cell functions.
Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes.
Information and resources pertaining to the human heart valves.