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Biology: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
10 Reasons Women Live Longer Than Men
Women have a longer life expectancy than men. A major reason for this is due to differences in genetic make-up between men and women.
What Is Incomplete Dominance in Genetics?
Definition of the term incomplete dominance.
10 Sounds We Hate Most
Have you ever wondered why certain sounds make your skin crawl? Interactions between areas of the brain that process sound and emotions heighten our perception of unpleasant sounds.
Discover What Occurs During Anaphase II of...
This stage-by-stage guide to the phases of meiosis provides details about the events that occur in each of the stages of meiosis.
7 Types of Proteins and Their Functions
Proteins are very important molecules in our cells. Each protein within the body has a specific function.
Don't Look Like Your Sibs? Mendel's Law of...
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes.
The 4 Concepts Related to Mendel's Law of...
Mendel's Law of Segregation states that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
What's the Role of the Central Nervous System?
The central nervous system (CNS) is responsible for processing information received from all parts of the body. The two main organs of the CNS are the brain and spinal cord.
All About Animal Cells
Animal cells are eukaryotic cells that contain various membrane-bound organelles.
The 10 Steps of Glycolysis
In glycolysis, glucose is split into two molecules of a three-carbon sugar.
What Is an Allele?
An allele is an alternative form of a gene.
What Are the 6 Kingdoms of Life?
Living organisms are classified into three Domains and into one of six Kingdoms of life. Organisms are placed into these categories based on similarities or common characteristics.
Parts of a Flowering Plant Quiz
Parts of a Flowering Plant Quiz Take Our Quiz About Flowering Plants Sorry, but this quiz requires that
The Anatomy of a Heart Beat
The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occurs when the heart beats.
How Chromosome Mutations Occur
A chromosome mutation causes changes in the structure or number of chromosomes in a cell. These mutations are often caused by errors that occur during the process of cell division or by mutagens.
How Does DNA Transcription Work?
DNA transcription is a process that involves the transcribing of genetic information from DNA to RNA.
Stage-By-Stage Guide to Mitosis
A stage-by-stage guide to the phases of mitosis. In interphase, the cell increases in mass in preparation for cell division.
What Is the Cell Theory?
The Cell Theory is one of the basic principles of biology. It states that all living things are composed of cells and cells are the basic units of life.
What You Need to Know About Organ Systems
The human body is made up of several organ systems that work together as one unit.
Why the Peripheral Nervous System Is Important
The nervous system consists of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The peripheral nervous system contains sensory and motor nerves that carry signals between the central nervous system and the other parts of the body.
The 3 Main Stages of Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration is a process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food. Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport are the three main processes of cellular respiration.
Learn What Independent Assortment Is Through...
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes. Therefore, traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another.
Afraid? Blame Your Amygdala
The amygdala is the brain structure responsible for autonomic responses associated with fear and fear conditioning. Fear conditioning is an associative learning process by which we learn through repeated experiences to fear something.
3 Types of Specialized Plant Cells
A plant cell is a eukaryotic cell, meaning that it possesses a membrane-bound nucleus. Learn about the structures and organelles that can be found in typical plant cells.
10 Facts We Should Know About Cells
The following 10 facts about cells will provide you with well known and perhaps little known tidbits of information about cells.
What Are the Functions of the Thalamus?
The thalamus is a large, dual lobed mass of grey matter buried under the cerebral cortex. It is involved in sensory perception and regulation of motor functions.
Biology Basics: What Are Sex Cells?
Sex cells are reproductive cells. Male and female sex cells are dramatically different in size and shape. Female ova are large and round, while male sperm resemble long, motile projectiles.
What Are the Major Functions of Lymph Nodes?
Lymph nodes are specialized structures in the body that filter lymph fluid of harmful pathogens, cancer cells, and cellular waste.
What Is the Structure and Function of the...
Explore the structure and function of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells.
How the Brain Defines Who You Are
The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain. It encompasses about two-thirds of the brain mass and lies over and around most of the structures of the brain.
2 Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
The cardiac cycle is the cycle of events that occurs as the heart contracts.
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Cell...
The cell membrane is a thin, semi-permeable barrier that surrounds and encloses the contents of a cell. This membrane selectively allows substances into and out of a cell, supports the cell, and helps to maintain the cell's shape.
Why the Brainstem is Your Body's Motion...
The brainstem is the region of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and the pons.
What Is the Corpus Callosum?
The corpus callosum is a thick band of nerve fibers that divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres.
Behold, the Earliest Form of Life on This Planet:
Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that are the earliest and most primitive forms of life on earth. Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaeans.
What to Know About Protein Structures
Protein structure is determined by the sequence of amino acids that form a protein. The four protein structure levels are primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.
What Everyone Should Know About White Blood Cells
Also called leukocytes, white blood cells play an important role in the immune system by protecting the body from infectious agents.
What Is the Structure of Red Blood Cells?
Red blood cells are blood components that transport oxygen throughout the body. Also called erythrocytes, these cells contain hundreds of millions of oxygen-binding hemoglobin molecules.
Do You Have Stellar Memory? It May Be Your...
The hippocampus is the part of the brain that is involved in memory forming, organizing, and storing. It is a limbic system structure that is particularly important in forming new memories and connecting emotions and senses, such as smell and sound, to memories.
Learn the Basic Anatomy of the Brain
Due to its intricate structure and function, the anatomy of the brain is complex. This resource provides information on brain anatomy, the central nervous system, and brain function.
Gametes: The Building Blocks of Sexual...
Gametes are reproductive cells that unite at fertilization to form a new cell called a zygote. Gametes are haploid cells, meaning that they contain only one set of chromosomes.
Using the 3 Domain System to Classify Organisms
The Three Domain System is a system for classifying biological organisms. Under this system, organisms are classified into three domains and six kingdoms.
Translation: Making Protein Synthesis Possible
Protein synthesis is accomplished through a process called translation. In translation, RNA and ribosomes work together to produce proteins.
What Brain Structures Control Our Emotions?
The limbic system is comprised of brain structures that are involved in our emotions and feelings of pleasure related to survival. Structures of this system include the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and thalamus.
What Traits Are Determined by Your Sex...
Sex linked traits originate from genes found on sex chromosomes. Hemophilia is an example of a common sex linked disorder that is an X linked recessive trait.
How Gene Mutation Occurs:
A gene mutation is any change that occurs in the DNA. These changes can be beneficial to, have some effect on, or be seriously detrimental to an organism.
How Do Video Games Affect Brain Function?
Studies indicate that video games affect brain function. Video gaming causes changes in brain structure that can improve cognitive function and visual attention.
Explore the 4 Types of Blood Vessels in Your Body
Blood vessels are intricate networks of hollow tubes that transport blood throughout the entire body.
4 Main Parts of a Flowering Plant
Learn about the characteristics and parts of a flowering plant.
What Are the Functions of the Temporal Lobes?
The temporal lobes are one of the four main lobes or regions of the cerebral cortex. The temporal lobes play an important role in organizing sensory input, auditory perception and memory.
6 Things You Should Know About Biological...
Biological evolution is defined as any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations. This change can occur through a mutation, gene flow between populations, and sexual reproduction.
The Anatomy of Your Heart
The heart is the organ that helps supply blood and oxygen to all parts of the body. Heart anatomy focuses on the structure and function of this amazing organ.
Why Your Brain's Frontal Lobes Are Important
The frontal lobes are one of the four main lobes or regions of the cerebral cortex.
What Is the Diencephalon?
The diencephalon, along with the telencephalon comprise the two major divisions of forebrain.
Diploid Cells: Double the Chromosomes, Double...
A diploid cell is a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes.
What Does Heterozygous Mean?
Definition of the word heterozygous.
What is a Capillary Fluid Exchange?
A capillary is an extremely small blood vessel located within the tissues of the body.
What You Should Know About Blood Types
The presence or absence of certain identifiers on the surface of red blood cells determine human blood type.
How Sexual Reproduction Occurs in Animals
An introduction to the mechanisms of sexual reproduction in animals.
5 Types of Specialized Plant Cells
There have a number of important specialized types of plant cells. Some examples of specialized plant cells include parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells and sclerenchyma cells.
Male or Female? How Chromosomes Play a Role in...
What is the relationship between chromosomes and sex? Sex is determined by the presence or absence of certain chromosomes.
The Magic of Photosynthesis: How Plants Turn...
Photosynthesis is a process in which light energy is used to produce sugar and other organic compounds.
What Is Asexual Reproduction?
In asexual reproduction, one individual produces offspring that are genetically identical to itself. Common forms of asexual reproduction include budding, regeneration, and parthenogenesis.
4 Parts of the Brain That Make Up Your Cerebral...
The cerebral cortex is the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter. It is the outer portion of the cerebrum.
What's a Chromatin?
Chromatin is a mass of genetic material composed of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes.
What Is the Medulla Oblongata?
The medulla oblongata is a portion of the hindbrain that controls autonomic functions such as breathing, digestion and heart rate.
Spread Out and Make Yourself Comfortable with...
Facilitated diffusion is a type of passive transport that allows substances to cross membranes with the assistance of special transport proteins. Page 2.
How Bacteria Reproduce:
Bacterial reproduction most commonly occurs by a kind of cell division called binary fission. Other forms of bacterial reproduction include conjugation, transformation, and transduction.
What is the Cerebellum?
The cerebellum is the area of the hindbrain that controls motor movement coordination, balance, equilibrium and muscle tone.
Platelets: Cells That Clot Blood
Platelets, or thrombocytes, are blood components that are vital to the blood clotting process. Activated platelets are round and sticky with long, finger-like projections which extend from the cell.
What Is an Artery?
An artery is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood away from the heart. Pulmonary and systemic arteries are two main types of arteries.
Why Ribosomes Are Essential
Ribosomes are cell organelles that consist of RNA and proteins. They are responsible for assembling the proteins of the cell.
Your Cardiovascular System is More Than a...
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting nutrients and removing gaseous waste from the body. This system is comprised of the heart and the circulatory system.
Why We Look Like Our Parents
Have you ever wondered why you have the same eye color as your parent? Traits are inherited by the transmission of genes from parents to their young.
What Is a Vein?
A vein is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood from various regions of the body to the heart. Veins can be categorized into pulmonary, systemic, superficial, and deep veins.
How Normal Cells Differ From Cancer Cells
How do normal cells differ from cancer cells? Learn about the properties of normal cells versus cancer cells.
What Does Our Hypothalamus Do for Us?
About the size of a pearl, the hypothalamus directs a multitude of important functions in the body. It is the control center for many autonomic functions and also regulates endocrine system hormones.
Biology Basics: Characteristics of Life
What is biology? Simply put, it is the study of life.
What Allows Organisms to Transfer Their Genetic...
Nucleic acids are organic molecules that allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next. DNA and RNA are the two types of nucleic acids.
What You Should Know About Mitrochondria
Mitochondria are the cell's power producers. They convert energy into forms that are usable by the cell.
Lymphatic Vessels
Lymphatic vessels filter and transport fluid away from tissues before returning it to the blood. This helps to maintain normal blood volume and pressure.
Virus Replication
Learn about virus replication and how viruses infect cells.
Haploid Cells: All the Chromosomes You Need in...
A haploid cell is a cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes.
What Makes a Trait Homozygous?
Definition of the word homozygous.
How Open vs Closed Circulatory Systems Function
The circulatory system involves the circulation of blood which serves to move blood to a site or sites where it can be oxygenated, and where wastes can be disposed.
What Is Mendel's Law of Segregation?
The principles that govern heredity were discovered by a monk named Gregor Mendel in the 1860's. One of these principles is now called Mendel's law of segregation.
Chloroplast
A chloroplast is a chlorophyll containing organelle found in plant cells and some green algae. Chloroplasts convert light energy into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis.
What Does Connective Tissue Do in Your Body?
Connective tissue supports and binds other tissues of the body. Examples of connective tissue include adipose, cartilage, bone, tendons, and blood.
Why Organelles Are Important to Cells
Analogous to the body's internal organs, organelles are tiny cellular organs that are specialized to perform functions necessary for normal cellular operation. Examples of organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes.
22 Ideas for Science Experiments Using Plants
The following project ideas using plants provide suggestions for topics that can be explored through experimentation.
How to Format a Biology Lab Report
If you are taking a biology course, you are going to write biology lab reports. Find information about using a good lab report format to properly write a lab report.
What Does the Pineal Gland Actually Do?
The pineal gland is a pine cone shaped gland of the endocrine system that produces several important hormones including melatonin.
Cellular Respiration Quiz
cellular respiration, quiz
What Are the Components of the Lymphatic System?
Lymphatic system structures collect, filter, and return lymph to blood circulation.
Understand the Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is a cylindrical shaped bundle of nerve fibers that convey messages to and from the brain. The spongy spinal cord is protected by the irregular shaped bones of the spinal column called vertebrae.
Discover the Regions of Your Brain: Broca's Area
Broca's area is one of the main areas of the cerebral cortex responsible for producing language.
What's In Your Blood?
Blood is the life fluid of the body as it provides nourishment to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body. A component of the cardiovascular system, blood is circulated via the heart and blood vessels.
Lymphocytes: Defenders of the Body
Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that provide a means for specific and nonspecific immunity. They circulate in blood and lymph fluids and defend the body against cancerous cells, pathogens, and foreign matter.
Learn About the Anatomy of the Brain
The cerebral cortex is the outer covering of the cerebrum. It is the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter.
Do You Know How Your Digestive System Absorbs...
Information and resources pertaining to the human digestive system and nurtrient absorption.
Heart Anatomy Quiz
anatomy quiz, heart anatomy
Bone Marrow
Bone marrow is the soft tissue found inside bones that functions mainly to produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
How Cells Grow and Replicate
Cells grow and replicate through an ordered series of events called the cell cycle.
Cell Model and Structure of the Endoplasmic...
The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubules and flattened sacs that serve a variety of functions in the cell.
What's the Function of the Thymus?
The thymus is a small glandular structure that regulates the immune system through the production of specific immune cells called lymphocytes.
Human Anatomy Quiz
anatomy quiz, human anatomy
Know the Characteristics of Temperate...
Temperate grasslands are savanna-like areas located in cold climate regions.
Integumentary System
The integumentary system consists of the largest organ in the body, the skin. This extraordinary organ system protects the internal structures of the body from damage, prevents dehydration, stores fat and produces vitamins and hormones.
How the Occipital Lobes Helps You See Color
The occipital lobes are positioned at the back region of the cerebral cortex and are the main centers for visual processing.
How Do Steroid Hormones Work?
Steroid hormones are molecules that acts as chemical messengers in the body. These hormones are derived from cholesterol and include the sex hormones testosterone and estrogens.
7 Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis
Cells divide either through the process of mitosis or meiosis. Sex cells are produced through meiosis, while all other body cell types are produced through mitosis.
Biology Basics: What Are Eukaryotic and...
Take a journey into the cell to find out about the cell structure of both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
Human Anatomy Study Tips
Anatomy is the study of the structure of living organisms on a large and small scale. The most important thing to understand when studying anatomy is the terminology.
What Does the Pituitary Gland Really Do?
The pituitary gland is a small endocrine system organ that controls a multitude of important functions in the body.
What Is a Dihybrid Cross?
Definition of the term dihybrid cross.
How Does Taxonomy Help Us Organize Life?
Taxonomy is a hierarchical system for classifying and identifying organisms.
The 3 Types of Muscle Tissue
Explore the structure and function of cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle tissue.
What to Know About the Skeletal System
The skeletal system is the support system for the body. It gives the body shape, form, and mobility while providing protection for sensitive organs.
What Is the Function of the Heart's Atria?
The atria of the heart receive blood returning to the heart from other areas of the body.
Explore the Anatomy of Neurons
All cells of the nervous system are comprised of neurons. Neurons are responsible for sending, receiving, and interpreting information from all parts of the body.
Ready for a Nap? You Can Thank Your 'Pons'
The pons serves as a communications and coordination center between the two hemispheres of the brain.
Keeping Your Heart Pumping: The Ventricles
The ventricles of the heart function to pump blood to the entire body.
What Are Genes?
Genes are segments of DNA located on chromosomes. Genes contain the codes for the production of specific proteins.
How Do Phospholipids Help Hold a Cell Together?
Phospholipids belong to the lipid family of biological polymers. A phospholipid is composed of two fatty acids, a glycerol unit, a phosphate group and a polar molecule.
Cell Membranes - Protector of the Cytoplasm
The cell membrane is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosing its contents.
8 Types of Biology-Based Science Fair Projects...
Here are some great ideas for biology science fair projects including projects related to animals, plants and the human body.
What Are Homologous Chromosomes?
Homologous chromosomes are chromosome pairs that are inherited from each parent.
Monohybrid Cross: A Breeding Experiment
Definition of the term monohybrid cross.
3 Major Lipid Groups
Lipids are diverse compounds that are insoluble in water. Lipids store energy, protect against water loss, and form cell membranes. Examples of lipids include fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes.
Get to Know the Largest Veins in Your Body, the...
The superior vena cava and inferior vena cava are the two largest veins in the body.
What's Nervous Tissue For?
Explore the structure and function of nervous tissue and neurons, also called nerve cells.
What Makes the Sound of Your Heartbeat?
Information and resources pertaining to the human heart valves.
What's it Like in a Temperate Forest Land Biome?
Temperate forests are areas with high levels of precipitation, humidity, and contain a variety of deciduous trees.
Amino Acid
Amino acids are the basic components of proteins. They are essential to life because the proteins they form are involved in virtually all cell functions.
Do Brain Cells Regenerate?
For almost one hundred years scientists believed that brain cells don't regenerate, until now.
What Is the Function of the Aorta?
Information and resources pertaining to the aorta of the heart.
Explore Plant Tissue Systems
Plant tissue systems are composed of dermal tissue, vascular tissue, and ground tissue systems. These systems provide support, nutrient formation and transportation, growth, and protection for a plant.
What Is a Chromosome?
A chromosome is a long, stringy aggregate of genes that carries heredity information and is formed from condensed chromatin.
Antibodies
Antibodies are specialized proteins that defend against foreign substances in the body. They are produced by white blood cells known as B cells that develop from bone marrow stem cells.
What Are Proteins?
Proteins are very important molecules in cells. They have many diverse functions and all are typically constructed from one set of 20 amino acids.
The Importance of Genetic Variation
In genetic variation, the alleles of organisms within a population change.
Discover the 4 Steps of Cardiac Conduction
Have you ever wondered what causes your heart to beat? Learn about the four steps of cardiac conduction, the rate at which the heart conducts electrical impulses.
Plant Viruses
Viruses are capable of infecting various types of organisms including animals, bacteria, and even plants. Plant viruses cause plant diseases that negatively affect viable crop production.
What Is the Pericardium?
Information and resources pertaining to the pericardium of the human heart.
What Is Homeostasis?
Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes.
How to Make a Lung Model
Try this simple demonstration that shows how to make a working lung model.
What's the Role of a Cell's Cytoplasm?
The cytoplasm is a clear substance that consists of all of the contents outside of the nucleus of a membrane bound cell.
Interesting Facts You May Not Know About Turkeys
About 45 million turkeys are consumed during the holiday season, which translates to about 675 million pounds of turkey. Before sitting down to enjoy that turkey meal, I believe it is appropriate to pay tribute to this splendid bird by discovering some interesting turkey facts.
Your Quick Guide to the Human Heart
The heart is the organ that supplies blood and oxygen to all parts of the body.

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