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Biology: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
Discover What Occurs During Anaphase II of...
This stage-by-stage guide to the phases of meiosis provides details about the events that occur in each of the stages of meiosis I and meiosis II.
What Is Incomplete Dominance in Genetics?
Definition of the term incomplete dominance.
All About Animal Cells
Animal cells are eukaryotic cells that contain various membrane-bound organelles.
The 4 Concepts Related to Mendel's Law of...
Mendel's Law of Segregation states that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
7 Types of Proteins and Their Functions
Proteins are very important molecules in our cells. Each protein within the body has a specific function.
What Is the Cell Theory?
The Cell Theory is one of the basic principles of biology. It states that all living things are composed of cells and cells are the basic units of life.
The 10 Steps of Glycolysis
In glycolysis, glucose is split into two molecules of a three-carbon sugar.
What Is the Structure and Function of the...
The cell nucleus is the command center of our cells. It contains our chromosomes and genetic information needed for the reproduction of life.
Don't Look Like Your Sibs? Mendel's Law of...
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes.
The 3 Main Stages of Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration is a process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food. Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport are the three main processes of cellular respiration.
6 Things You Should Know About Biological...
Biological evolution is defined as any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations. This change can occur through a mutation, gene flow between populations, and sexual reproduction.
How Alleles Determine Traits
An allele is an alternative form of a gene. Organisms typically have two alleles for a single trait, one being inherited from each parent.
10 Facts We Should Know About Cells
The following 10 facts about cells will provide you with well known and perhaps little known tidbits of information about cells.
3 Types of Specialized Plant Cells
A plant cell is a eukaryotic cell, meaning that it possesses a membrane-bound nucleus. Learn about the structures and organelles that can be found in typical plant cells.
Stage-By-Stage Guide to Mitosis
This guide to the phases of mitosis explores the reproduction of cells. In mitosis, chromosomes are duplicated and divided evenly between two cells.
The Anatomy of a Heart Beat
The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occurs when the heart beats.
Afraid? Blame Your Amygdala
The amygdala is the brain structure responsible for autonomic responses associated with fear and fear conditioning. Fear conditioning is an associative learning process by which we learn through repeated experiences to fear something.
What's the Role of the Central Nervous System?
The central nervous system (CNS) is responsible for processing information received from all parts of the body. The two main organs of the CNS are the brain and spinal cord.
Learn the Basic Anatomy of the Brain
Due to its intricate structure and function, the anatomy of the brain is complex. This resource provides information on brain anatomy, the central nervous system, and brain function.
How Chromosome Mutations Occur
A chromosome mutation causes changes in the structure or number of chromosomes in a cell. These mutations are often caused by errors that occur during the process of cell division or by mutagens.
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Cell...
The cell membrane is a thin, semi-permeable barrier that surrounds and encloses the contents of a cell. This membrane selectively allows substances into and out of a cell, supports the cell, and helps to maintain the cell's shape.
Biology Basics: What Are Eukaryotic and...
Take a journey into the cell to find out about the cell structure of both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
How Does DNA Transcription Work?
DNA transcription is a process that involves the transcribing of genetic information from DNA to RNA.
Why the Peripheral Nervous System Is Important
The nervous system consists of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The peripheral nervous system contains sensory and motor nerves that carry signals between the central nervous system and the other parts of the body.
Prokaryotes: The Earliest Form of Life on This...
Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that are the earliest and most primitive forms of life on earth. Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaeans.
Cellular Respiration Quiz
cellular respiration, quiz
8 Different Types of Body Cells
The body contains trillions of cells that come in varying shapes and sizes. There are hundreds of different types of cells in the body and the structure of a cell is linked to its function. Explore some of the different types of cells in the body.
Why Organelles Are Important to Cells
Analogous to the body's internal organs, organelles are tiny cellular organs that are specialized to perform functions necessary for normal cellular operation. Examples of organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes.
What Are the 6 Kingdoms of Life?
Living organisms are classified into three Domains and into one of six Kingdoms of life. Organisms are placed into these categories based on similarities or common characteristics.
Why Ribosomes Are Essential
Ribosomes are cell organelles that consist of RNA and proteins. They are responsible for assembling the proteins of the cell.
What to Know About Protein Structures
Protein structure is determined by the sequence of amino acids that form a protein. The four protein structure levels are primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.
What You Need to Know About Organ Systems
The human body is made up of several organ systems that work together as one unit. These systems are important for proper organism function.
What Brain Structures Control Our Emotions?
The limbic system is comprised of brain structures that are involved in our emotions and feelings of pleasure related to survival. Structures of this system include the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and thalamus.
What Is So Unique About Red Blood Cells?
Red blood cells are blood components that transport oxygen throughout the body. Also called erythrocytes, these cells contain hundreds of millions of oxygen-binding hemoglobin molecules.
5 Types of Specialized Plant Cells
There have a number of important specialized types of plant cells. Some examples of specialized plant cells include parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells and sclerenchyma cells.
4 Parts of the Brain That Make Up Your Cerebral...
The cerebral cortex is the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter. It is the outer portion of the cerebrum.
Learn What Independent Assortment Is Through...
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes. Therefore, traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another.
Translation: Making Protein Synthesis Possible
Protein synthesis is accomplished through a process called translation. In translation, RNA and ribosomes work together to produce proteins.
Why the Brainstem is Your Body's Motion...
The brainstem is the region of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and the pons.
What Are the Functions of the Thalamus?
The thalamus is a large, dual lobed mass of grey matter buried under the cerebral cortex. It is involved in sensory perception and regulation of motor functions.
What is a Capillary Fluid Exchange?
A capillary is an extremely small blood vessel located within the body tissues. Gasses, nutrients, and fluids are exchanged through capillaries.
What Everyone Should Know About White Blood Cells
Also called leukocytes, white blood cells play an important role in the immune system by protecting the body from infectious agents.
What Does Connective Tissue Do in Your Body?
Connective tissue supports and binds other tissues of the body. Examples of connective tissue include adipose, cartilage, bone, tendons, and blood.
Male or Female? How Chromosomes Play a Role in...
What is the relationship between chromosomes and sex? Sex is determined by the presence or absence of certain chromosomes.
What Allows Organisms to Transfer Their Genetic...
Nucleic acids are organic molecules that allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next. DNA and RNA are the two types of nucleic acids.
Learn About the Anatomy of the Brain
The cerebral cortex is the outer covering of the cerebrum. It is the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter.
Diploid Cells: Double the Chromosomes, Double...
A diploid cell is a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes.
What Is the Corpus Callosum?
The corpus callosum is a thick band of nerve fibers that divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres.
Using the 3 Domain System to Classify Organisms
The Three Domain System is a system for classifying biological organisms. Under this system, organisms are classified into three domains and six kingdoms.
Biology Basics: What Are Sex Cells?
Sex cells are reproductive cells. Male and female sex cells are dramatically different in size and shape. Female ova are large and round, while male sperm resemble long, motile projectiles.
What Are the Major Functions of Lymph Nodes?
Lymph nodes are specialized structures in the body that filter lymph fluid of harmful pathogens, cancer cells, and cellular waste.
Parts of a Flowering Plant Quiz
Parts of a Flowering Plant Quiz Take Our Quiz About Flowering Plants Sorry, but this quiz requires that
2 Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
The cardiac cycle is the cycle of events that occurs as the heart contracts.
3 Major Lipid Groups
Lipids are diverse compounds that are insoluble in water. Lipids store energy, protect against water loss, and form cell membranes. Examples of lipids include fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes.
How Normal Cells Differ From Cancer Cells
How do normal cells differ from cancer cells? Learn about the properties of normal cells versus cancer cells.
Your Quick Guide to the Human Heart
The heart is the organ that supplies blood and oxygen to all parts of the body.
The Anatomy of Your Heart
The heart is the organ that helps supply blood and oxygen to all parts of the body. Heart anatomy focuses on the structure and function of this amazing organ.
Biology Basics: Characteristics of Life
What is biology? Simply put, it is the study of life. Discover the basic principles of biology and the characteristics of life.
Discover the Regions of Your Brain: Broca's Area
Broca's area is one of the main areas of the cerebral cortex responsible for producing language.
How the Brain Defines Who You Are
The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain. It encompasses about two-thirds of the brain mass and lies over and around most of the structures of the brain.
How Sexual Reproduction Occurs in Animals
An introduction to the mechanisms of sexual reproduction in animals.
Gametes: The Building Blocks of Sexual...
Gametes are reproductive cells that unite at fertilization to form a new cell called a zygote. Gametes are haploid cells, meaning that they contain only one set of chromosomes.
What Does Heterozygous Mean?
Definition of the word heterozygous.
22 Ideas for Science Experiments Using Plants
The following project ideas using plants provide suggestions for topics that can be explored through experimentation.
15 Differences Between Animal and Plant Cells
Did you know that animal cells can only produce 10 of the amino acids needed for protein production naturally, while plants are capable of synthesizing all 20 amino acids? Discover several important differences between animal and plant cells.
Explore the 4 Types of Blood Vessels in Your Body
Blood vessels are intricate networks of hollow tubes that transport blood throughout the entire body.
What Is Asexual Reproduction?
In asexual reproduction, one individual produces offspring that are genetically identical to itself. Common forms of asexual reproduction include budding, regeneration, and parthenogenesis.
How Bacteria Reproduce:
Bacterial reproduction most commonly occurs by a kind of cell division called binary fission. Other forms of bacterial reproduction include conjugation, transformation, and transduction.
The Magic of Photosynthesis: How Plants Turn...
Photosynthesis is a process in which light energy is used to produce sugar and other organic compounds.
What Traits Are Determined by Your Sex...
Sex linked traits originate from genes found on sex chromosomes. Hemophilia is an example of a common sex linked disorder that is an X linked recessive trait.
What Are the Functions of the Temporal Lobes?
The temporal lobes are one of the four main lobes or regions of the cerebral cortex. The temporal lobes play an important role in organizing sensory input, auditory perception and memory.
Human Anatomy Study Tips
Anatomy is the study of the structure of living organisms on a large and small scale. The most important thing to understand when studying anatomy is the terminology.
Haploid Cells: All the Chromosomes You Need in...
A haploid cell is a cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes.
Integumentary System and Skin Layers
The integumentary system consists of the largest organ in the body, the skin. This organ protects the internal structures of the body from damage.
The 3 Types of Muscle Tissue
Muscle tissue is the most abundant tissue type in most animals. The three types of muscle tissue in the body are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle.
Bone Marrow
Bone marrow is the soft tissue found inside bones that functions mainly to produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
How Chloroplasts Make Photosynthesis Possible
A chloroplast is a chlorophyll containing organelle found in plant cells and some green algae. Chloroplasts convert light energy into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis.
What Are Homologous Chromosomes?
Homologous chromosomes are chromosome pairs that are inherited from each parent.
How Gene Mutation Occurs:
A gene mutation is any change that occurs in the DNA. These changes can be beneficial to, have some effect on, or be seriously detrimental to an organism.
How Do Phospholipids Help Hold a Cell Together?
Phospholipids belong to the lipid family of biological polymers. A phospholipid is composed of two fatty acids, a glycerol unit, a phosphate group and a polar molecule.
How to Format a Biology Lab Report
If you are taking a biology course, you are going to write biology lab reports. Find information about using a good lab report format to properly write a lab report.
Platelets: Cells That Clot Blood
Platelets, or thrombocytes, are blood components that are vital to the blood clotting process. Activated platelets are round and sticky with long, finger-like projections which extend from the cell.
Monohybrid Cross: A Breeding Experiment
Definition of the term monohybrid cross.
12 Interesting Facts About Blood
Did you know that not all blood is red or that white blood cells are necessary for pregnancy? Discover 12 surprising facts about blood.
Why Your Brain's Frontal Lobes Are Important
The frontal lobes are one of the four main lobes or regions of the cerebral cortex.
What's the Function of the Thymus?
The thymus is a small glandular structure that regulates the immune system through the production of specific immune cells called lymphocytes.
What's In Your Blood?
Blood is the life fluid of the body as it provides nourishment to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body. A component of the cardiovascular system, blood is circulated via the heart and blood vessels.
What You Should Know About Mitrochondria
Mitochondria are the cell's power producers. They convert energy into forms that are usable by the cell.
What Is Mendel's Law of Segregation?
The principles that govern heredity were discovered by a monk named Gregor Mendel in the 1860's. One of these principles is now called Mendel's law of segregation.
8 White Blood Cells That Germs Shouldn't Mess...
White blood cells protect the body from germs and damaged cells. Learn about the 8 types of white blood cells that safeguard the body against pathogens.
8 Types of Biology-Based Science Fair Projects...
Here are some great ideas for biology science fair projects including projects related to animals, plants and the human body.
Ready for a Nap? You Can Thank Your 'Pons'
The pons serves as a communications and coordination center between the two hemispheres of the brain.
Lymphocytes: Defenders of the Body
Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that provide a means for specific and nonspecific immunity. They circulate in blood and lymph fluids and defend the body against cancerous cells, pathogens, and foreign matter.
What is the Cerebellum?
The cerebellum is the area of the hindbrain that controls motor movement coordination, balance, equilibrium and muscle tone.
How Do Viruses Replicate?
Learn about virus replication and how viruses infect cells.
Know the Steps of the Scientific Method
The scientific method is a series of steps followed by scientific investigators to answer specific questions about the natural world.
Cell Membranes - Protector of the Cytoplasm
The cell membrane is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosing its contents.
4 Sex Chromosome Abnormalities Caused by Mutation
Sex chromosome abnormalities occur as a result of chromosome mutations brought on by mutagens or problems that occur during meiosis.
What's the Role of a Cell's Cytoplasm?
The cytoplasm is a clear substance that consists of all of the contents outside of the nucleus of a membrane bound cell.
What Makes a Trait Homozygous?
Homozygous - A Genetics Definition. The term homozygous refers to individuals that have identical alleles for a given trait.
What You Should Know About Blood Types
The presence or absence of certain identifiers on the surface of red blood cells determine human blood type.
What's a Chromatin?
Chromatin is a mass of genetic material composed of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes.
What Is the Function of the Aorta?
Information and resources pertaining to the aorta of the heart.
What Are Biological Polymers?
Biological polymers are large molecules composed of many similar smaller molecules linked together. Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids are examples of polymers.
Cell Model and Structure of the Endoplasmic...
The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubules and flattened sacs that serve a variety of functions in the cell.
Amino Acids: Protein Building Blocks
Amino acids are the basic components of proteins. They are essential to life because the proteins they form are involved in virtually all cell functions.
How the Occipital Lobes Helps You See Color
The occipital lobes are positioned at the back region of the cerebral cortex and are the main centers for visual processing.
Know the Characteristics of Temperate...
Temperate grasslands are savanna-like areas located in cold climate regions. Learn about the animals and plants in this biome.
What Are the Components of the Lymphatic System?
Lymphatic system structures collect, filter, and return lymph to blood circulation.
What Does Our Hypothalamus Do for Us?
About the size of a pearl, the hypothalamus directs a multitude of important functions in the body. It is the control center for many autonomic functions.
Why Epithelial Tissue Is Important
Epithelial tissue covers the outside of the body and lines organs, vessels, and cavities. Epithelial cells are very closely packed together and joined with little space between them. This helps to provide a protective barrier against damage, dehydration, and microorganisms.
How Do Steroid Hormones Work?
Steroid hormones are molecules that acts as chemical messengers in the body. These hormones are derived from cholesterol and include the sex hormones testosterone and estrogens.
What Is the Diencephalon?
The diencephalon, along with the telencephalon comprise the two major divisions of forebrain.
Understand the Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is a cylindrical shaped bundle of nerve fibers that convey messages to and from the brain. The spongy spinal cord is protected by the irregular shaped bones of the spinal column called vertebrae.
How the Pineal Gland Controls Your Biological...
The pineal gland is a small gland of the endocrine system that produces the hormone melatonin. This gland controls sleep-wake cycles.
What Is the Function of the Heart's Atria?
The atria of the heart receive blood returning to the heart from other areas of the body.
Lymphatic Vessels
Lymphatic vessels filter and transport fluid away from tissues before returning it to the blood. This helps to maintain normal blood volume and pressure.
What's Nervous Tissue For?
Explore the structure and function of nervous tissue and neurons, also called nerve cells.
Do You Have Stellar Memory? It May Be Your...
The hippocampus is the part of the brain that is involved in memory forming, organizing, and storing. It is a limbic system structure that is particularly important in forming new memories and connecting emotions and senses, such as smell and sound, to memories.
What Are Genes?
Genes are segments of DNA located on chromosomes. Genes contain the codes for the production of specific proteins.
Why We Look Like Our Parents
Have you ever wondered why you have the same eye color as your parent? Traits are inherited by the transmission of genes from parents to their young.
What Is the Medulla Oblongata?
The medulla oblongata is a portion of the hindbrain that controls autonomic functions such as breathing, digestion and heart rate.
How Does Taxonomy Help Us Organize Life?
Taxonomy is a hierarchical system for classifying and identifying organisms.
How External and Internal Fertilization Occur
In sexual reproduction, fertilization involves the donation of genes from two parents which results in the production of offspring with a mix of inherited genes.
What Is a Dihybrid Cross?
Definition of the term dihybrid cross.
Get to Know the 3 Main Parts of the Brain
The brain is one of the largest and most important organs of the human body. Weighing in at about three pounds, this organ has a wide range of responsibilities.
RNA molecules are unique nucleic acids that are essential to protein synthesis. The three primary classes of RNA molecules are messenger RNA, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA.
What Is a Vein?
A vein is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood from various regions of the body to the heart. Veins can be categorized into pulmonary, systemic, superficial, and deep veins.
Explore the Anatomy of Neurons
All cells of the nervous system are comprised of neurons. Neurons are responsible for sending, receiving, and interpreting information from all parts of the body.
Keeping Your Heart Pumping: The Ventricles
The ventricles of the heart function to pump blood to the entire body.
Spread Out and Make Yourself Comfortable with...
Diffusion is the tendency of molecules to spread into an available space. The diffusion of substances across a membrane is called passive transport.
Glossary of Cell Biology Terms
Do you know what the cytoskeleton does? This cell biology glossary is a good resource for finding succinct, practical, and meaningful biology definitions for various cell biology terms.
Viruses That Cause Disease in Plants
Viruses are capable of infecting various types of organisms including animals, bacteria, and even plants. Plant viruses cause plant diseases that negatively affect viable crop production.
The Role Centrioles Play in Animal Cell Division
Centrioles are cylindrical structures that are composed of groupings of microtubules. Centrioles are found in animal cells and play a role in cell division.
What to Know About the Skeletal System
The skeletal system is the support system for the body. It gives the body shape, form, and mobility while providing protection for sensitive organs.
How Open vs Closed Circulatory Systems Function
The circulatory system involves the circulation of blood which serves to move blood to a site or sites where it can be oxygenated, and where wastes can be disposed.
What Is DNA?
DNA is a type of nucleic acid that contains the genetic information necessary for the production of other cell components and for the reproduction of life.
What Are Proteins?
Proteins are very important molecules in cells. They have many diverse functions and all are typically constructed from one set of 20 amino acids.
The Nucleus: Keeping a Cell's Heredity and...
The nucleus is a cell structure that contains hereditary information, or DNA, and controls cellular growth and reproduction.
The Cell Cycle of Growth
Cells grow and replicate through an ordered series of events called the cell cycle.
What Are the Major Land Biomes?
Biomes are identified by the vegetation and animals that populate them. The location of each biome is determined by the regional climate.
7 Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis
Cells divide either through the process of mitosis or meiosis. Sex cells are produced through meiosis, while all other body cell types are produced through mitosis.
Your Cardiovascular System is More Than a...
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting nutrients and removing gaseous waste from the body. This system is comprised of the heart and the circulatory system.
30+ Ideas for Animal Experiments and Projects
Animal projects and studies are important for students to understanding various biological processes in animals and even humans. Here are some ideas.
Learn What Happens During the 4 Stages of Mitosis
This study guide introduces you to the basics of mitosis and the mitotic process.
What Is the Pericardium?
Information and resources pertaining to the pericardium of the human heart.
What Is a Pulmonary Artery?
Information and resources pertaining to the pulmonary artery of the heart.
What Is an Artery?
An artery is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood away from the heart. Pulmonary and systemic arteries are two main types of arteries.
What Are Sister Chromatids?
Sister chromatids are two identical copies of a single replicated chromosome that are connected by a centromere and held together by special proteins.
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