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Biology: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
The Science Behind Fingerprints
Did you know that some people are born without fingerprints? Studies indicate that fingerprints don't improve grip, so why do we have fingerprints?
All About Animal Cells
Animal cells are eukaryotic cells that contain various membrane-bound organelles.
3 Types of Specialized Plant Cells
A plant cell is a eukaryotic cell, meaning that it possesses a membrane-bound nucleus. Learn about the structures and organelles that can be found in typical plant cells.
10 Facts We Should Know About Cells
The following 10 facts about cells will provide you with well known and perhaps little known tidbits of information about cells.
What You Need to Know About Organ Systems
The human body is made up of several organ systems that work together as one unit.
Why We Look Like Our Parents
Have you ever wondered why you have the same eye color as your parent? Traits are inherited by the transmission of genes from parents to their young.
What Is the Cell Theory?
The Cell Theory is one of the basic principles of biology. It states that all living things are composed of cells and cells are the basic units of life.
7 Types of Proteins and Their Functions
Proteins are very important molecules in our cells. Each protein within the body has a specific function.
Learn the Basic Anatomy of the Brain
Due to its intricate structure and function, the anatomy of the brain is complex. This resource provides information on brain anatomy, the central nervous system, and brain function.
Discover What Occurs During Anaphase II of...
This stage-by-stage guide to the phases of meiosis provides details about the events that occur in each of the stages of meiosis I and meiosis II.
What Is the Structure and Function of the...
The cell nucleus is the command center of our cells. It contains our chromosomes and genetic information needed for the reproduction of life.
Biology Basics: Characteristics of Life
What is biology? Simply put, it is the study of life.
What Are the 6 Kingdoms of Life?
Living organisms are classified into three Domains and into one of six Kingdoms of life. Organisms are placed into these categories based on similarities or common characteristics.
Know the Steps of the Scientific Method
The scientific method is a series of steps followed by scientific investigators to answer specific questions about the natural world.
5 Types of Specialized Plant Cells
There have a number of important specialized types of plant cells. Some examples of specialized plant cells include parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells and sclerenchyma cells.
Prokaryotes: The Earliest Form of Life on This...
Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that are the earliest and most primitive forms of life on earth. Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaeans.
The 10 Steps of Glycolysis
In glycolysis, glucose is split into two molecules of a three-carbon sugar.
Biology Basics: What Are Eukaryotic and...
Take a journey into the cell to find out about the cell structure of both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
What's the Role of the Central Nervous System?
The central nervous system (CNS) is responsible for processing information received from all parts of the body. The two main organs of the CNS are the brain and spinal cord.
The 3 Main Stages of Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration is a process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food. Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport are the three main processes of cellular respiration.
Why Organelles Are Important to Cells
Analogous to the body's internal organs, organelles are tiny cellular organs that are specialized to perform functions necessary for normal cellular operation. Examples of organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes.
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Cell...
The cell membrane is a thin, semi-permeable barrier that surrounds and encloses the contents of a cell. This membrane selectively allows substances into and out of a cell, supports the cell, and helps to maintain the cell's shape.
What Is an Allele?
An allele is an alternative form of a gene.
What to Know About Protein Structures
Protein structure is determined by the sequence of amino acids that form a protein. The four protein structure levels are primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.
What Is Incomplete Dominance in Genetics?
Definition of the term incomplete dominance.
8 Types of Biology-Based Science Fair Projects...
Here are some great ideas for biology science fair projects including projects related to animals, plants and the human body.
Using the 3 Domain System to Classify Organisms
The Three Domain System is a system for classifying biological organisms. Under this system, organisms are classified into three domains and six kingdoms.
What Allows Organisms to Transfer Their Genetic...
Nucleic acids are organic molecules that allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next. DNA and RNA are the two types of nucleic acids.
What Is Asexual Reproduction?
In asexual reproduction, one individual produces offspring that are genetically identical to itself. Common forms of asexual reproduction include budding, regeneration, and parthenogenesis.
The Anatomy of a Heart Beat
The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occurs when the heart beats.
The 4 Concepts Related to Mendel's Law of...
Mendel's Law of Segregation states that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
Afraid? Blame Your Amygdala
The amygdala is the brain structure responsible for autonomic responses associated with fear and fear conditioning. Fear conditioning is an associative learning process by which we learn through repeated experiences to fear something.
How to Stay Safe in Biology Lab
Biology lab safety rules are guidelines designed to help keep you safe when experimenting. It is always wise to follow all lab safety rules.
Why the Peripheral Nervous System Is Important
The nervous system consists of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The peripheral nervous system contains sensory and motor nerves that carry signals between the central nervous system and the other parts of the body.
Why the Brainstem is Your Body's Motion...
The brainstem is the region of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and the pons.
Get to Know the 3 Main Parts of the Brain
The brain is one of the largest and most important organs of the human body. Weighing in at about three pounds, this organ has a wide range of responsibilities.
Stage-By-Stage Guide to Mitosis
This guide to the phases of mitosis explores the reproduction of cells. In mitosis, chromosomes are duplicated and divided evenly between two cells.
How Sexual Reproduction Occurs in Animals
An introduction to the mechanisms of sexual reproduction in animals.
6 Things You Should Know About Biological...
Biological evolution is defined as any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations. This change can occur through a mutation, gene flow between populations, and sexual reproduction.
Don't Look Like Your Sibs? Mendel's Law of...
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes.
Male or Female? How Chromosomes Play a Role in...
What is the relationship between chromosomes and sex? Sex is determined by the presence or absence of certain chromosomes.
The Anatomy of Your Heart
The heart is the organ that helps supply blood and oxygen to all parts of the body. Heart anatomy focuses on the structure and function of this amazing organ.
Human Anatomy Study Tips
Anatomy is the study of the structure of living organisms on a large and small scale. The most important thing to understand when studying anatomy is the terminology.
Before You Buy a Microscope
Before you buy a microscope, there are several factors that should be considered. The type of microscope you choose depends on what you would like to view.
What Does Connective Tissue Do in Your Body?
Connective tissue supports and binds other tissues of the body. Examples of connective tissue include adipose, cartilage, bone, tendons, and blood.
What Everyone Should Know About White Blood Cells
Also called leukocytes, white blood cells play an important role in the immune system by protecting the body from infectious agents.
Why Ribosomes Are Essential
Ribosomes are cell organelles that consist of RNA and proteins. They are responsible for assembling the proteins of the cell.
What Traits Are Determined by Your Sex...
Sex linked traits originate from genes found on sex chromosomes. Hemophilia is an example of a common sex linked disorder that is an X linked recessive trait.
What Brain Structures Control Our Emotions?
The limbic system is comprised of brain structures that are involved in our emotions and feelings of pleasure related to survival. Structures of this system include the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and thalamus.
What Is So Unique About Red Blood Cells?
Red blood cells are blood components that transport oxygen throughout the body. Also called erythrocytes, these cells contain hundreds of millions of oxygen-binding hemoglobin molecules.
What Are the Major Functions of Lymph Nodes?
Lymph nodes are specialized structures in the body that filter lymph fluid of harmful pathogens, cancer cells, and cellular waste.
22 Ideas for Science Experiments Using Plants
The following project ideas using plants provide suggestions for topics that can be explored through experimentation.
How Chromosome Mutations Occur
A chromosome mutation causes changes in the structure or number of chromosomes in a cell. These mutations are often caused by errors that occur during the process of cell division or by mutagens.
How the Brain Defines Who You Are
The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain. It encompasses about two-thirds of the brain mass and lies over and around most of the structures of the brain.
What's Nervous Tissue For?
Explore the structure and function of nervous tissue and neurons, also called nerve cells.
Translation: Making Protein Synthesis Possible
Protein synthesis is accomplished through a process called translation. In translation, RNA and ribosomes work together to produce proteins.
What Is the Pericardium?
Information and resources pertaining to the pericardium of the human heart.
Learn What Independent Assortment Is Through...
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes. Therefore, traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another.
15 Differences Between Animal and Plant Cells
Did you know that animal cells can only produce 10 of the amino acids needed for protein production naturally, while plants are capable of synthesizing all 20 amino acids? Discover several important differences between animal and plant cells.
Platelets: Cells That Clot Blood
Platelets, or thrombocytes, are blood components that are vital to the blood clotting process. Activated platelets are round and sticky with long, finger-like projections which extend from the cell.
The 3 Types of Muscle Tissue
Muscle tissue is the most abundant tissue type in most animals. The three types of muscle tissue in the body are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle.
How Does the Immune System Work?
With germs lurking around every corner, it pays to have a strong defense. Find out about the body's natural defense system, the immune system.
How Chloroplasts Make Photosynthesis Possible
A chloroplast is a chlorophyll containing organelle found in plant cells and some green algae. Chloroplasts convert light energy into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis.
The Magic of Photosynthesis: How Plants Turn...
Photosynthesis is a process in which light energy is used to produce sugar and other organic compounds.
Explore the 4 Types of Blood Vessels in Your Body
Blood vessels are intricate networks of hollow tubes that transport blood throughout the entire body.
3 Major Lipid Groups
Lipids are diverse compounds that are insoluble in water. Lipids store energy, protect against water loss, and form cell membranes. Examples of lipids include fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes.
Explore Plant Tissue Systems
Plant tissue systems are composed of dermal tissue, vascular tissue, and ground tissue systems. These systems provide support, nutrient formation and transportation, growth, and protection for a plant.
How to Format a Biology Lab Report
If you are taking a biology course, you are going to write biology lab reports. Find information about using a good lab report format to properly write a lab report.
2 Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
The cardiac cycle is the cycle of events that occurs as the heart contracts.
Biology Basics: What Are Sex Cells?
Sex cells are reproductive cells. Male and female sex cells are dramatically different in size and shape. Female ova are large and round, while male sperm resemble long, motile projectiles.
How Does DNA Transcription Work?
DNA transcription is a process that involves the transcribing of genetic information from DNA to RNA.
The Nucleus: Keeping a Cell's Heredity and...
The nucleus is a cell structure that contains hereditary information, or DNA, and controls cellular growth and reproduction.
Cell Model and Structure of the Endoplasmic...
The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubules and flattened sacs that serve a variety of functions in the cell.
Integumentary System and Skin Layers
The integumentary system consists of the largest organ in the body, the skin. This organ protects the internal structures of the body from damage.
How Do Phospholipids Help Hold a Cell Together?
Phospholipids belong to the lipid family of biological polymers. A phospholipid is composed of two fatty acids, a glycerol unit, a phosphate group and a polar molecule.
What Does the Pineal Gland Actually Do?
The pineal gland is a pine cone shaped gland of the endocrine system that produces several important hormones including melatonin.
How Bacteria Reproduce:
Bacterial reproduction most commonly occurs by a kind of cell division called binary fission. Other forms of bacterial reproduction include conjugation, transformation, and transduction.
How Does Taxonomy Help Us Organize Life?
Taxonomy is a hierarchical system for classifying and identifying organisms.
How Gene Mutation Occurs:
A gene mutation is any change that occurs in the DNA. These changes can be beneficial to, have some effect on, or be seriously detrimental to an organism.
What You Should Know About Mitrochondria
Mitochondria are the cell's power producers. They convert energy into forms that are usable by the cell.
Cell Membranes - Protector of the Cytoplasm
The cell membrane is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosing its contents.
What is a Capillary Fluid Exchange?
A capillary is an extremely small blood vessel located within the body tissues. Gasses, nutrients, and fluids are exchanged through capillaries.
Why Your Brain's Frontal Lobes Are Important
The frontal lobes are one of the four main lobes or regions of the cerebral cortex.
What Are the Functions of the Thalamus?
The thalamus is a large, dual lobed mass of grey matter buried under the cerebral cortex. It is involved in sensory perception and regulation of motor functions.
8 White Blood Cells That Germs Shouldn't Mess...
White blood cells protect the body from germs and damaged cells. Learn about the 8 types of white blood cells that safeguard the body against pathogens.
What Is a Vein?
A vein is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood from various regions of the body to the heart. Veins can be categorized into pulmonary, systemic, superficial, and deep veins.
What Is Mendel's Law of Segregation?
The principles that govern heredity were discovered by a monk named Gregor Mendel in the 1860's. One of these principles is now called Mendel's law of segregation.
What is the Cerebellum?
The cerebellum is the area of the hindbrain that controls motor movement coordination, balance, equilibrium and muscle tone.
Plant Viruses
Viruses are capable of infecting various types of organisms including animals, bacteria, and even plants. Plant viruses cause plant diseases that negatively affect viable crop production.
Your Cardiovascular System is More Than a...
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting nutrients and removing gaseous waste from the body. This system is comprised of the heart and the circulatory system.
How Open vs Closed Circulatory Systems Function
The circulatory system involves the circulation of blood which serves to move blood to a site or sites where it can be oxygenated, and where wastes can be disposed.
Why Epithelial Tissue Is Important
Epithelial tissue covers the outside of the body and lines organs, vessels, and cavities. Epithelial cells are very closely packed together and joined with little space between them. This helps to provide a protective barrier against damage, dehydration, and microorganisms.
Learn About the Anatomy of the Brain
The cerebral cortex is the outer covering of the cerebrum. It is the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter.
What Is the Medulla Oblongata?
The medulla oblongata is a portion of the hindbrain that controls autonomic functions such as breathing, digestion and heart rate.
12 Interesting Facts About Blood
Did you know that not all blood is red or that white blood cells are necessary for pregnancy? Discover 12 surprising facts about blood.
What Are the Functions of the Temporal Lobes?
The temporal lobes are one of the four main lobes or regions of the cerebral cortex. The temporal lobes play an important role in organizing sensory input, auditory perception and memory.
Do You Have Stellar Memory? It May Be Your...
The hippocampus is the part of the brain that is involved in memory forming, organizing, and storing. It is a limbic system structure that is particularly important in forming new memories and connecting emotions and senses, such as smell and sound, to memories.
Do Brain Cells Regenerate?
For almost one hundred years scientists believed that brain cells don't regenerate, until now.
Amino Acids: Protein Building Blocks
Amino acids are the basic components of proteins. They are essential to life because the proteins they form are involved in virtually all cell functions.
Bone Marrow
Bone marrow is the soft tissue found inside bones that functions mainly to produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
What's the Function of the Thymus?
The thymus is a small glandular structure that regulates the immune system through the production of specific immune cells called lymphocytes.
What's the Role of a Cell's Cytoplasm?
The cytoplasm is a clear substance that consists of all of the contents outside of the nucleus of a membrane bound cell.
Spread Out and Make Yourself Comfortable with...
Diffusion is the tendency of molecules to spread into an available space. The diffusion of substances across a membrane is called passive transport.
What You Should Know About Blood Types
The presence or absence of certain identifiers on the surface of red blood cells determine human blood type.
Your Quick Guide to the Human Heart
The heart is the organ that supplies blood and oxygen to all parts of the body.
How Normal Cells Differ From Cancer Cells
How do normal cells differ from cancer cells? Learn about the properties of normal cells versus cancer cells.
Virus Replication
Learn about virus replication and how viruses infect cells.
Understand the Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is a cylindrical shaped bundle of nerve fibers that convey messages to and from the brain. The spongy spinal cord is protected by the irregular shaped bones of the spinal column called vertebrae.
4 Parts of the Brain That Make Up Your Cerebral...
The cerebral cortex is the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter. It is the outer portion of the cerebrum.
What to Know About the Skeletal System
The skeletal system is the support system for the body. It gives the body shape, form, and mobility while providing protection for sensitive organs.
What Is the Corpus Callosum?
The corpus callosum is a thick band of nerve fibers that divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres.
What's In Your Blood?
Blood is the life fluid of the body as it provides nourishment to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body. A component of the cardiovascular system, blood is circulated via the heart and blood vessels.
What Are the Major Land Biomes?
Biomes are identified by the vegetation and animals that populate them. The location of each biome is determined by the regional climate.
9 Steps to Get You Ready for AP Bio Exams
Here are some excellent tips to help you learn how to study for biology exams.
Discover the 4 Steps of Cardiac Conduction
Have you ever wondered what causes your heart to beat? Learn about the four steps of cardiac conduction, the rate at which the heart conducts electrical impulses.
Gene Theory
The Gene Theory is one of the basic principles of biology. The main concept of this theory is that traits are passed from parents to offspring through gene transmission.
What's a Chromatin?
Chromatin is a mass of genetic material composed of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes.
Gametes: The Building Blocks of Sexual...
Gametes are reproductive cells that unite at fertilization to form a new cell called a zygote. Gametes are haploid cells, meaning that they contain only one set of chromosomes.
Lymphocytes: Defenders of the Body
Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that provide a means for specific and nonspecific immunity. They circulate in blood and lymph fluids and defend the body against cancerous cells, pathogens, and foreign matter.
What Is the Diencephalon?
The diencephalon, along with the telencephalon comprise the two major divisions of forebrain.
What Are Biological Polymers?
Biological polymers are large molecules composed of many similar smaller molecules linked together. Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids are examples of polymers.
How To Make a Working Model of the Lungs
an easy way to make a working model of the lungs
What Are the Components of the Lymphatic System?
Lymphatic system structures collect, filter, and return lymph to blood circulation.
What Does Our Hypothalamus Do for Us?
About the size of a pearl, the hypothalamus directs a multitude of important functions in the body. It is the control center for many autonomic functions and also regulates endocrine system hormones.
Know the Characteristics of Temperate...
Temperate grasslands are savanna-like areas located in cold climate regions. Learn about the animals and plants in this biome.
Diploid Cells: Double the Chromosomes, Double...
A diploid cell is a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes.
What Can Produce Carbon Monoxide in Your Home?
Information and resources pertaining to the effects of carbon monoxide and carbon monoxide poisoning.
What Are Proteins?
Proteins are very important molecules in cells. They have many diverse functions and all are typically constructed from one set of 20 amino acids.
Discover the Regions of Your Brain: Broca's Area
Broca's area is one of the main areas of the cerebral cortex responsible for producing language.
What Are the Functions of the Coronary Arteries?
Information and resources pertaining to the coronary arteries of the heart.
Haploid Cells: All the Chromosomes You Need in...
A haploid cell is a cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes.
Test Your Knowledge of the Body's Organs
Take the Organ Systems Quiz! Biology.
What Is a Chromosome?
A chromosome is a long, stringy aggregate of genes that carries heredity information and is formed from condensed chromatin.
Ready for a Nap? You Can Thank Your 'Pons'
The pons serves as a communications and coordination center between the two hemispheres of the brain.
What Does Heterozygous Mean?
Definition of the word heterozygous.
What Is an Artery?
An artery is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood away from the heart. Pulmonary and systemic arteries are two main types of arteries.
What Does the Pituitary Gland Really Do?
The pituitary gland is a small endocrine system organ that controls a multitude of important functions in the body.
What Are Genes?
Genes are segments of DNA located on chromosomes. Genes contain the codes for the production of specific proteins.
8 Tips for Doing Well in Biology Class
Need help studying for biology? I've got some great biology study tips for you. Just following these simple steps will make studying less stressful.
Get to Know the Biology of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are one of the four major classes of organic compounds in living cells. The term carbohydrate is used when referring to a saccharide or sugar and its derivatives.
The Role Centrioles Play in Animal Cells
Centrioles are cylindrical structures that are composed of groupings of microtubules. Centrioles are found in animal cells and play a role in cell division.
4 Sex Chromosome Abnormalities Caused by Mutation
Sex chromosome abnormalities occur as a result of chromosome mutations brought on by mutagens or problems that occur during meiosis.
The Ultimate Brain Quiz: How Well Do You Know...
Take the Human Brain Quiz and discover how much you know about the brain.
Are Bacteria Friend or Foe?
The decision as to whether bacteria are friend or foe becomes more difficult to determine when all aspects of the relationship between humans and bacteria are considered.
4 Main Parts of a Flowering Plant
Flowering plants are the most numerous of all the divisions in the Plant Kingdom. Learn about the characteristics and parts of a flowering plant.
What Is Homeostasis?
Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes.
White, Brown, and Beige Fat
Adipose tissue is a type of connective tissue composed of fat storing cells that harvest and utilize the energy in fats. White adipose tissue stores energy and helps to insulate the body, while brown adipose and beige adipose burn energy and generate heat.
Explore the Anatomy of Neurons
All cells of the nervous system are comprised of neurons. Neurons are responsible for sending, receiving, and interpreting information from all parts of the body.
How to Make a Lung Model
Try this simple demonstration that shows how to make a working lung model.
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