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Biology: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
Don't Look Like Your Sibs? Mendel's Law of...
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes.
The 10 Steps of Glycolysis
In glycolysis, glucose is split into two molecules of a three-carbon sugar.
The 4 Concepts Related to Mendel's Law of...
Mendel's Law of Segregation states that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
Learn What Independent Assortment Is Through...
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes. Therefore, traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another.
The Magic of Photosynthesis: How Plants Turn...
Photosynthesis is a process in which light energy is used to produce sugar and other organic compounds.
Three Domain System
The Three Domain System is a system for classifying biological organisms. Under this system, organisms are classified into three domains and six kingdoms.
What's the Role of the Central Nervous System?
The nervous system is comprised of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is responsible for processing information received from the peripheral nervous system.
The 7 Types of Proteins and Their Functions
Proteins are very important molecules in our cells. Each protein within the body has a specific function.
What Is Incomplete Dominance in Genetics?
Definition of the term incomplete dominance.
What Is the Peripheral Nervous System and Why...
The nervous system can be divided into two parts, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
What Are the 6 Kingdoms of Life?
Living organisms are classified into three Domains and into one of six Kingdoms of life.
What Does the Pineal Gland Actually Do?
The pineal gland is a pine cone shaped gland of the endocrine system that produces several important hormones including melatonin.
What Does Our Hypothalamus Do for Us?
About the size of a pearl, the hypothalamus directs a multitude of important functions in the body. It is the control center for many autonomic functions and also regulates endocrine system hormones.
What Is an Allele?
An allele is an alternative form of a gene.
Male or Female? How Chromosomes Play a Role in...
What is the relationship between chromosomes and sex? Sex is determined by the presence or absence of certain chromosomes.
How Does DNA Transcription Work?
DNA transcription is a process that involves the transcribing of genetic information from DNA to RNA.
The 3 Main Stages of Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration is a process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food. Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport are the three main processes of cellular respiration.
Stages of Meiosis
This stage-by-stage guide to the phases of meiosis provides details about the events that occur in each of the stages of meiosis.
What is the Cerebellum?
The cerebellum is the area of the hindbrain that controls motor movement coordination, balance, equilibrium and muscle tone.
What You Need to Know About Organ Systems
The human body is made up of several organ systems that work together as one unit.
Learn the Basic Anatomy of the Brain
Due to its intricate structure and function, the anatomy of the brain is complex. This resource provides information on brain anatomy, the central nervous system, and brain function.
What Is the Medulla Oblongata?
The medulla oblongata is a portion of the hindbrain that controls autonomic functions such as breathing, digestion and heart rate.
What Does the Limbic System Control in the Brain?
The limbic system is responsible for controlling various functions in the body. Structures of this system include the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and thalamus.
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about Cell...
The cell membrane is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cell's cytoplasm, enclosing its contents.
What Is the Corpus Callosum?
The corpus callosum is a thick band of nerve fibers that divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres.
All About Animal Cells
Animal cells are eukaryotic cells that contain various membrane-bound organelles.
Protein Synthesis - Translation
Protein synthesis is accomplished through a process called translation. In translation, RNA and ribosomes work together to produce proteins.
Hippocampus
The hippocampus is the part of the brain that is involved in memory forming, organizing, and storing. It is a limbic system structure that is particularly important in forming new memories and connecting emotions and senses, such as smell and sound, to memories.
Why Your Brain's Frontal Lobes Are Important
The frontal lobes are one of the four main lobes or regions of the cerebral cortex.
What You Should Know About Mitrochondria
Mitochondria are the cell's power producers. They convert energy into forms that are usable by the cell.
Thalamus
The thalamus is a large, dual lobed mass of grey matter buried under the cerebral cortex. It is involved in sensory perception and regulation of motor functions.
Amygdala
The amygdala is an almond shaped mass of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain.
Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that are the earliest and most primitive forms of life on earth. Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaeans.
Cerebral Cortex
The cerebral cortex is the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter. It is the outer portion of the cerebrum.
Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
The cardiac cycle is the cycle of events that occurs as the heart contracts.
Anatomy of the Brain - Cerebrum
The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain. It encompasses about two-thirds of the brain mass and lies over and around most of the structures of the brain.
Mendel's Law of Segregation
The principles that govern heredity were discovered by a monk named Gregor Mendel in the 1860's. One of these principles is now called Mendel's law of segregation.
Reproduction in Animals: Sexual Reproduction
An introduction to the mechanisms of sexual reproduction in animals.
10 Interesting Facts About Cells
The following 10 facts about cells will provide you with well known and perhaps little known tidbits of information about cells.
Stages of Mitosis
A stage-by-stage guide to the phases of mitosis.
Anatomy of the Brain - Pons
The pons serves as a communications and coordination center between the two hemispheres of the brain.
Cardiac Cycle
The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occurs when the heart beats.
What Is Asexual Reproduction?
An introduction to the mechanisms of asexual reproduction in animals. Common forms of this type of reproduction include budding, gemmules, fragmentation, regeneration, and parthenogenesis.
Parts of a Flowering Plant Quiz
Parts of a Flowering Plant Quiz Take Our Quiz About Flowering Plants Sorry, but this quiz requires that
Brainstem
The brainstem is the region of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and the pons.
Cell Model and Structure of the Endoplasmic...
The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubules and flattened sacs that serve a variety of functions in the cell.
Sex-Linked Traits
Sex linked traits originate from genes found on sex chromosomes. Hemophilia is an example of a common sex linked disorder that is an X linked recessive trait.
Temporal Lobes
The temporal lobes are one of the four main lobes or regions of the cerebral cortex. The temporal lobes play an important role in organizing sensory input, auditory perception and memory.
What Does the Pituitary Gland Really Do?
The pituitary gland is a small endocrine system organ that controls a multitude of important functions in the body.
Bacterial Reproduction
Bacterial reproduction most commonly occurs by a kind of cell division called binary fission. Other forms of bacterial reproduction include conjugation, transformation, and transduction.
Broca's Area
Broca's area is one of the main areas of the cerebral cortex responsible for producing language.
Gene Mutation
A gene mutation is any change that occurs in the DNA. These changes can be beneficial to, have some effect on, or be seriously detrimental to an organism.
Heart Anatomy Quiz
anatomy quiz, heart anatomy
Protein Structure
Protein structure is determined by the sequence of amino acids that form a protein. The four protein structure levels are primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment - A...
Definition of Mendel's law of independent assortment.
Biology Science Fair Project Ideas
Here are some great ideas for biology science fair projects including projects related to animals, plants and the human body.
Plant Cell
A plant cell is a eukaryotic cell, meaning that it possesses a membrane-bound nucleus. Learn about the structures and organelles that can be found in typical plant cells.
The Cell
Take a journey into the cell to find out about the cell structure of both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
Circulatory System
The circulatory system involves the circulation of blood which serves to move blood to a site or sites where it can be oxygenated, and where wastes can be disposed.
Occipital Lobes
The occipital lobes are positioned at the back region of the cerebral cortex and are the main centers for visual processing.
Why Ribosomes Are Essential
Ribosomes are cell organelles that consist of RNA and proteins. They are responsible for assembling the proteins of the cell.
Chromosome Mutation
A chromosome mutation causes changes in the structure or number of chromosomes in a cell. These mutations are often caused by errors that occur during the process of cell division or by mutagens.
Blood Type
The presence or absence of certain identifiers on the surface of red blood cells determine human blood type.
What Does Heterozygous Mean?
Definition of the word heterozygous.
Anatomy of the Brain - Parietal Lobes
Information and resources pertaining to the parietal lobes
White Blood Cell
Also called leukocytes, white blood cells play an important role in the immune system by protecting the body from infectious agents.
Anatomy of the Brain - Cerebral Cortex
The cerebral cortex is the outer covering of the cerebrum. It is the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter.
Heart Anatomy
The heart is the organ that helps supply blood and oxygen to all parts of the body. Heart anatomy focuses on the structure and function of this amazing organ.
What Is the Cell Theory?
The Cell Theory is one of the basic principles of biology. It states that all living things are composed of cells.
Connective Tissue
Explore the structure and function of animal tissues, including connective tissue.
Diploid Cell
A diploid cell is a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes.
Hand Sanitizers vs. Soap and Water
Should you wash your hands with a hand sanitizer or soap and water?
The Heart
The heart is the organ that supplies blood and oxygen to all parts of the body.
Virus Replication
Learn about virus replication and how viruses infect cells.
Haploid Cell
A haploid cell is a cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes.
Parts of a Flowering Plant
Learn about the characteristics and parts of a flowering plant.
Cardiovascular System
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting nutrients and removing gaseous waste from the body. This system is comprised of the heart and the circulatory system.
Biology
What is biology? Simply put, it is the study of life.
Cellular Respiration Quiz
cellular respiration, quiz
Turkey Facts
Before sitting down to enjoy that holiday turkey meal, I believe it is appropriate to pay tribute to this splendid bird by discovering some interesting turkey facts.
Thymus
The thymus is a small glandular structure that regulates the immune system through the production of specific immune cells called lymphocytes.
Anatomy of the Heart: Pericardium
Information and resources pertaining to the pericardium of the human heart.
What Are the Functions of the Coronary Arteries?
Information and resources pertaining to the coronary arteries of the heart.
What is a Capillary Fluid Exchange?
A capillary is an extremely small blood vessel located within the tissues of the body.
Secretion of Bile and the Role of Bile Acids In...
Information on bile secretion and digestion.: bile acids fat soluble vitamins bile ducts small intestine organic molecules
Red Blood Cells
Red blood cells are blood components that transport oxygen throughout the body. Also called erythrocytes, these cells contain hundreds of millions of oxygen-binding hemoglobin molecules.
What Is Homeostasis?
Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes.
Ventricles of the Heart
The ventricles of the heart function to pump blood to the entire body.
Biological Evolution
Biological evolution is defined as any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations.
Sex Chromosome Abnormalities
Sex chromosome abnormalities occur as a result of chromosome mutations brought on by mutagens or problems that occur during meiosis.
Lymphatic System
Lymphatic system structures collect, filter, and return lymph to blood circulation.
What Makes the Sound of Your Heartbeat?
Information and resources pertaining to the human heart valves.
9 Steps to Get You Ready for AP Bio Exams
Here are some excellent tips to help you learn how to study for biology exams.
What Is the Diencephalon?
The diencephalon, along with the telencephalon comprise the two major divisions of forebrain.
Gametes
Gametes are reproductive cells. These cells unite to form a new cell called a zygote.
Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that provide a means for specific and nonspecific immunity against antigens.
Skeletal System
The skeletal system is the support system for the body. It gives the body shape, form, and mobility while providing protection for sensitive organs.
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next.
Sexual Reproduction: Fertilization
In sexual reproduction, fertilization involves the donation of genes from two parents which results in the production of offspring with a mix of inherited genes.
Cell Membrane - A Cell Biology Definition
The cell membrane is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosing its contents.
Biology Study Tips
Need help studying for biology? I've got some great biology study tips for you.
Diffusion and Passive Transport
Facilitated diffusion is a type of passive transport that allows substances to cross membranes with the assistance of special transport proteins. Page 2.
Do You Know How Your Digestive System Absorbs...
Information and resources pertaining to the human digestive system and nurtrient absorption.
Biology Lab Reports
If you are taking a biology course, you are going to write biology lab reports. Find information about using a good lab report format to properly write a lab report.
Anatomy of the Brain - Basal ganglia
Information and resources pertaining to the basal ganglia
How Do Hangovers Work?
Drinking too much alcohol can lead to alcohol hangover. Learn about alcohol hangover symptoms and how to prevent hangover.
Blood Vessels
Blood vessels are intricate networks of hollow tubes that transport blood throughout the entire body.
Homozygous - A Genetics Definition
Definition of the word homozygous.
Normal Cells Versus Cancer Cells
How do normal cells differ from cancer cells? Learn about the properties of normal cells versus cancer cells.
Do Brain Cells Regenerate?
For almost one hundred years scientists believed that brain cells don't regenerate, until now.
How to Make a Lung Model
Try this simple demonstration that shows how to make a working lung model.
Land Biomes: Temperate Forests
Temperate forests are areas with high levels of precipitation, humidity, and contain a variety of deciduous trees.
Biology Basics: What Are Sex Cells
Sex cells are male and female reproductive cells. They are produced through the cell division process of meiosis.
Blood
Blood is the life fluid of the body as it provides nourishment to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body.
What Is a Pulmonary Artery?
Information and resources pertaining to the pulmonary artery of the heart.
Metabolic Functions of the Liver
Information on the metabolic functions of the liver including information on carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism.
Anatomy of the Heart: Aorta
Information and resources pertaining to the aorta of the heart.
Photosynthesis Quiz
photosynthesis, quiz
Sinoatrial Node
Information and resources pertaining to the sinoatrial node of the heart.
Plant Tissue Systems
Plant tissue systems are composed of dermal tissue, vascular tissue, and ground tissue systems. These systems provide support, nutrient formation and transportation, growth, and protection for a plant.
Lipids
Lipids are very diverse in both their respective structures and functions. Examples of lipids include fats, phospholipids, steroids and waxes.
Types of Plant Cells
There have a number of important specialized types of plant cells. Some examples of specialized plant cells include parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells and sclerenchyma cells.
Integumentary System
The integumentary system consists of the largest organ in the body, the skin. This extraordinary organ system protects the internal structures of the body from damage, prevents dehydration, stores fat and produces vitamins and hormones.
How Do Steroid Hormones Work?
Become familiar with how steroid hormones work in the body to produce proteins.
Nucleus
The nucleus is a cell structure that contains hereditary information, or DNA, and controls cellular growth and reproduction.
What Are Carotid Arteries?
The carotid arteries are blood vessels that supply blood to the head, neck and brain.
Muscle Tissue
Explore the structure and function of cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle tissue.
Four Steps of Cardiac Conduction
Learn about the four steps of cardiac conduction, the rate at which the heart conducts electrical impulses.
Anatomy of the Stomach - Gastric Secretions
Information on gastric secretions including hormones, mucus and acid.
Salivary Glands and Saliva
Find information on salivary glands, saliva, mucus and their function in digestion.
Antibodies
Antibodies are specialized proteins that defend against foreign substances in the body. They are produced by white blood cells known as B cells that develop from bone marrow stem cells.
Endangered Species
Endangered species are animals and plants that are on the verge of vanishing from the earth.
Lymphatic Vessels
Lymphatic vessels filter and transport fluid away from tissues before returning it to the blood. This helps to maintain normal blood volume and pressure.
Atrioventricular Node
Information and resources pertaining to the atrioventricular node of the heart.
What Is a Chromosome?
A chromosome is a long, stringy aggregate of genes that carries heredity information and is formed from condensed chromatin.
Purkinje Fibers
Information and resources pertaining to the Purkinje fibers of the heart.
Anatomy of the Brain - Reticular Formation
Information and resources pertaining to the reticular formation
Digestive System - The Esophagus
Information on the esophogus and its role in digestion.
What Is a Dihybrid Cross?
Definition of the term dihybrid cross.
Atria of the Heart
The atria of the heart receive blood returning to the heart from other areas of the body.
Neurons
All cells of the nervous system are comprised of neurons. Neurons are responsible for sending, receiving, and interpreting information from all parts of the body.
Anatomy of the Stomach
Learn about the anatomy of the stomach and gastric motility, the filling and emptying of the stomach. Page 3.
The Importance of Genetic Variation
In genetic variation, the alleles of organisms within a population change.
Golgi Complex
The Golgi complex, also called the Golgi apparatus, is a membranous structure found in plant and animal cells. It processes, sorts, and generates molecules necessary for proper cell function.
How Does Taxonomy Help Us Organize Life?
Taxonomy is a hierarchical system for classifying and identifying organisms.
Human Anatomy Quiz
anatomy quiz, human anatomy
What Is a Virus, Actually?
Viruses are unique in that they have been classified as both living and nonliving at various points in the history biology. Learn about virus structure, DNA, capsids and more.
Artery
An artery is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood away from the heart. Pulmonary and systemic arteries are two main types of arteries.

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