Protein Synthesis: Transfer RNATransfer RNA plays a huge role in protein synthesis and translation. Its job is to translate the message within the nucleotide sequence of mRNA to a specific amino acid sequence. These sequences are joined together to form a protein. Transfer RNA is shaped like a clover leaf with three loops. It contains an amino acid attachment site on one end and a special section in the middle loop called the anticodon site. The anticodon recognizes a specific area on a mRNA called a codon.
Protein Synthesis: Messenger RNA ModificationsTranslation occurs in the cytoplasm. After leaving the nucleus, mRNA must undergo several modifications before being translated. Sections of the mRNA that do not code for amino acids, called introns, are removed. A poly-A tail, consisting of several adenine bases, is added to one end of the mRNA, while a guanosine triphosphate cap is added to the other end. These modifications remove unneeded sections and protect the ends of the mRNA molecule. Once all modifications are complete, mRNA is ready for translation.
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